Apr 062017
 

The state of affairs in 1828

Cherokee Principal Chief John Ross

By 1828, new states had been added and many had drawn their borders to overlap Indian territory.  Some of these states, especially Georgia, believed that state laws should apply to everyone living within their borders.   The state legislature of Georgia, enacted a series of laws which stripped the Cherokee of their rights under the laws of the state.  Indians believed that they should be exempt from state laws within their territorial boundaries.

The idea of removing Native Americans from east of the Mississippi was gaining favor in congress.

Mar 272017
 

There have been over 500 treaties made between the United States and Native Americans.  And there have been over 500 treaties broken.  Why?

In this article, I will concentrate on relations with those tribes east of the Mississippi—the “civilized tribes”—and five points in time that I think best illustrate how relations have gone from cooperative and respectful to intolerant and disrespectful.

Senate Resolution 76 (1987) reads:

The confederation of the original 13 colonies into one republic was influenced by the political system developed by the Iroquois Confederacy, as were many of the democratic principles which were incorporated into the constitution itself.

Jan 012016
 

Teaching son 002Note to readers of Native American Antiquity:  This article marks a change.  This year, the journal will change from weekly to monthly and will  present facts on the art, archaeology, astronomy, history and culture in each article.  I hope you enjoy the new format, wado (thanks), Courtney Miller.

Culture LogoFor the ancient Cherokee, this time of the year was a time for personal reflection and purification through ritual and ceremony.  It was a time of preparation for spring, repairing old tools and making new ones.  It was a time when families moved into their “asi” or winter house and listened to stories told by the elders.  The asi’s were conical clay houses partially submerged where the families could sit and sleep around the center fire to stay warm.

Oct 292015
 

On the surface, it appears that  Chief Di’Wali Bowles spent his life running from something trying to find peace.  He left his home in Running Water Chief Dewali BowlesTown on the Tennessee river after the Muscle Shoals Massacre fearing retribution from his tribe (He was later completely exonerated).  He left Missouri after a massive earthquake was determined to be a sign from the Great Spirit.  He left Arkansas after the Louisiana Purchase expanded the jurisdiction of the United States.  He twice relocated in Tejas (first a part of Spain, then Mexico).  In his early seventies, he thought he had possibly found peace in Texas until the white Texans revolted against the Mexicans.

Oct 222015
 

Reelfoot_Rift_diagram_from_USGS_en_svgOn December 16, 1811, a series of intense interplate earthquakes shook the area around New Madrid, Missouri.   They are, to this day, the most powerful earthquakes to hit the contiguous United States east of the Rocky Mountains.  The quakes were felt strongly over roughly 50,000 square miles.  Compare this to the 1906 San Francisco quake felt over roughly 6,200 square miles.  Chief Di’Wali Bowles interpreted these quakes as a sign from the Great Spirit that they were not to live there.  They left their homes and moved to Arkansas, still hoping to be far enough west to “outrun the disease of the white man and their great hunger for land.”

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