By the turn of the nineteenth century, the Native American tribes known as the Five Civilized Tribes were living peacefully on their native lands. The process of acculturation proposed by George Washington and his administration was well underway especially among the Cherokee and Choctaw. The Cherokee had established schools and, thanks to the syllabary developed by Sequoyah, were teaching their children in both Cherokee and English. They had a written a constitution similar to the U.S. Constitution, were successful farmers using Euro-American techniques, and the woman were employing Euro-American domestic skills. Many Cherokee farmers owned large cotton plantations and even owned slaves like their U. S. counterparts.